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Нууц үг сэргээх | Бүртгүүлэх
То Вангийн ном тохимол
 
To vanism
НИЙТЛЭЛ
Prof. Dr. Byanjargal.Ch.
Эл өгүүлэлд дэлхийд хосгүй Монголын нүүдлийн сонгодог мал аж ахуйн арга ажиллагаанд үндэслэсэн эдийн засгийн өвөрмөц нэгэн сургаал бий бөгөөд энэ нь хүн төрөлхтний эдийн засгийн сэтгэлгээний түүхийн их далайд дусал болон нийлэх учиртай юм гэдгийг дэлгэн тавьж буй явдалд оршино. XIX зууны дундуур манжийн хатуу ширүүн ноёрхолын үед тэр цагийн Сэцэнхан аймгийн Илдэн вангийн хошууны ноён Б. Тогтохтөр (То ван) энэхүү сургаалыг туурвин бичиж, олны хүртээл болгожээ. Тэр үеийн соёлт ертөнц гэгдэх суурьшмал улс үндэстнүүд, түүний дотор өрнө дахинаа монголчудыг зөвхөн зэрлэг бүдүүлгүүд хэмээн үзэх тул тэдний аж ахуйгаа эрхлэх өвөрмөц арга ухааныг  үл хайхрах төдийгүй, угаасаа ойлгоогүй билээ. Гэвч байх ёстой юм байдгаараа байж, монголчууд, тэдний дэлхийн эдийн засгийн нэгэн бичил хэсэг болж, бодитойгоор оршсоор байв. Нүүдэлчдийн оюуны өвөрмөц баялаг байсаар байв. Одоо ч хадгалагдсаар, үргэлжилсээр байна. Учир нь Монголын мал аж ахуйн нүүдлийн сонгодог хэв маяг үлэмж хувирлыг үзсэн боловч бэлчээрийн үндсэн шинжээ хадгалсаар байна. Түүнээс гадна өдгөө дэлхий дахинд жараад улс оронд бэлчээрийн маягийн мал аж ахуй бий гэнэм. Үүнээс үзэхүл, То вангийн хэмээн бидний томъёолон буй энэ сургаалын нөлөөг олон улсын ач холбогдолтой гэж хэлэх үндэс байна.
Энэ сургаал ерөнхий шинж тэмдэгээрээ олон зууны тэртээ өрнө дахинд үүсч, эдийн засгийн сэтгэлгээний түүхэнд орсон. (эдүгээ үнэндээ ач холбогдлоо алдсан) худалдааны тухай сургаал буюу меркантилизм, тариалангийн аж ахуйн явц дундаас үүссэн физократ сургаалтай төстэй хэдий ч амьдрах чадвараар тэдгээрээс хавьгүй илүү гэж дээрхи утгаар хэлж болно. Түүнчлэн удирдахуйн арга ухааны талаар Карнегийн алдарт онол сургаалтай төсөөтэйг бид тэмдэглэсэн. Эдгшээр онцлог шинжүүдээрээ То вангийн сургаал буюу Тованизм дэлхийн эдийн засгийн сэтгэлгээний түүхэн орох ёстой хэмэээн үзэх нь Монголын эдийн засаг дэлхийн эдийн засгийн нэгэн эд эс нь мөн болой.
The outstanding lord Totgtokhtur Bat-Ochir(1797-1868) who was everlasted as To Van in history of Mongolia, was a native of present Khalkh Gol district of Dornod province(former Ilden Van khoshuu, Setsen Khan aimag). He was 35-th generation of Chinggis Khaan Family and belongs to the Borjigon Clan. To Van was the largest statesman in politics, society and culture. He was also an outstanding economist and policymaker. It proves the hypothesis that the Chinggis Khaan family has a special training system for its next generations. To Van became famous by writing the book “Doctrine for Living”. This doctrine demonstrated the broad sphere of his thoughts. The famous historic, State Laureate and Academician Natsagdorj. Sh. was the first researcher who systemized the doctrine of To Van and exposed to the public in the socialist era. It was surprise that the date of publishing of his doctrine in Cyrillic version was coincided with the 100-th year of his death. The hard existence and difficult living conditions of people from his province and whole Mongolia, the serious internal and external environments were expressed in the doctrine of To Van. Analyzing the real situation, To Van found the way to raise the economy and started to teach the living practices to the poor people to support them.
First of all, let me review the investigations made by Natsagdorj. Sh:
•    In early 50-es of XIX century, the living condition of local people was very hard due to huge losses of animals since of natural disasters such as droughts and heavy winters for several years.
•    The Manchurian Government was distributed the leaflets where was blamed the Mongolian side for widespread roaming of people due to poor living condition. It must be gave the grounds for thinking to To Van.
To Van was a different from other feudal in terms of thinking, creation and initiative. The Academician Natsagdorj.Sh wrote: “The Doctrine for Living” written by To Van is an interesting economical script of Mongolia. This doctrine was aimed to right employment organization of the local people and to penetrate the economical and saving principles to the living and raising their life.  The peculiarity of the doctrine is that it was based on the traditional ways of nomadic pastoralism and doctrine of Chinggis Khaan. If the doctrine of To Van was similar to what the oppressor class was ruled to oppress the mass, there was no need to publish the doctrine and it will have no any value.”

The doctrine of Chinggis Khaan was used broadly in his doctrine. It proves that the doctrine of To Van is the continuation of Chinggis Khaan’s economic doctrine and serves as the connection between different historical periods. Starting from 1853, To Van has been created his doctrine and implemented the innovation policy in his district. The doctrine is the first economic textbook of Mongolia and we don’t have any similar script for early period.  In the doctrine he expressed his economic concept. The doctrine consists of 11 chapters and it served as the theoretical basis for his innovation. The content of the doctrine consists of:
•    Advise on running of Pastoral husbandry
•    Development of Agriculture
•    Development of Manufacture using different natural resources
•    Principles on Saving and optimal using
•    Management doctrine
It is suggested to study the To Van’s doctrine in whole in its logical relationship. As a practical man he had not proposed a “clear” economic understanding. Many economic understandings were included and mixed in one in his doctrine. We could not blame him for connection of certain economic problem with religious and moral things. There was no other way to reach the people for that time. It was naturally that almost all things in his doctrine were related to animal husbandry.  For example, the first unit begins with following: “A human must respect a morality and earn for living”. It means that an economic activity must begin and continue with respect to morality. I suppose, it shows the continuation of Chinggis Khaan’s management doctrine. An optimistic morality and solidarity based on that are a lever for success in any activity. The Mongolians were fallen down  in terms of morality before they were united by Chinggis Khaan. Chinggis Khaan who created the Great Mongolian Empire proved to the world how it has importance to raise a social morality and unite the people under one objective.  Using this concept in his creation allowed To Van to increase the value of his doctrine. To Van wrote: “Chinggis Khaan taught a top of wisdom is a solidarity. If the people could be united they will achieve a success in their business. If the people could get a harmony they will find a happiness.” Before 1990-s we’ve been agreed on the point that the beginning of To Van’s doctrine from a morality meant he tried to convince the people to work in favor of the aggressor class. But now this point of view has changed in opposite. A pastoral husbandry and its keeping were the core of his doctrine.  It was necessary and actual problem for that period. “In 1851 happened very dry summer and was fallen a lot of snow in winter that led to big loss of animals. The all county had moved with animals to the county of Barga(Inner Mongolia in China) to survive. Even in 1852 was not changed the bad weather condition and continued to die animals” noted Natsagdorj.Sh. The keeping of pastoral husbandry written by To Van was the only written manuscript for that time and complete one. Our economists, historians and professionals on animal husbandry had studied this core elements of To Van’s doctrine and sufficient number of  speeches and articles on this point were reported and published. Among them, Mr.Tumurjav whos is honored scientist and State honored person, had studied more precisely.  The To Van doctrine, specially that part for animal husbandry is not only his creation, but is based on the traditional animal husbandry management of Mongolians gained from ancient until his time. In the To Van’s doctrine described the traditional animal husbandry technology and management (herding, animal freighting, rear young animals etc.) in relation to weather conditions. It is necessary to mention that the doctrine of To Van on animal husbandry is comparable to the phyziocrate doctrine of Western economics. The pro.lem of planting took important place in the To Van’s doctrine. While he felt that the animal husbandry is not only living and is not enough for living, To Van had been paid much efforts to indoctrinate and promote his idea for development of planting and manufacturing. Thanks to the initiative, efforts and good management made by To Van, the people learnt to plant and satisfied their needs in corn and vegetables. Moreover, the surplus over their needs sold to the neighbor provinces.   I would like to mention here one important idea said by Shagdarsuren. O, academician. He said that To van is the first Mongolian who observed the mutual negation of animal husbandry and plantation. It was said by him in his speech at the scientific conference dedicated to the 200 years of To Van. I think this idea is very new and fresh. Because before him no one had approached from this point of view. The academician Shagdarsuren.O proved his idea as followed: If we see the World history, a country which was developed more in plantation sector, was less developed in animal husbandry sector and vice verse. In other words, a plantation and animal husbandry could not be developed symmetrically in one country. Because an increasing of planting area could decrease a breeding area and an increasing of breeding area could decrease a planting area restricting each other.
A relationship between animal husbandry and plantation was the delicate problem for that period. Knowing the above mentioned rule on mutual existences of two sectors, To Van not allowed to immigrate a lot of plant-farmers to the provincial area and required to allocate them. Sc.Doctor, professor Lhashid noted: “The Manchurian government was not developed a plantation in Mongolia because of more profitability of animal taxes. … Manchu, Chinese and Russian kept the policy that the Mongolians got forget that they knew before and were only consumers and not to learn more”. To Van found that consuming of planting products is decreased using of animal products. For this purpose he suggested to plant a wheat and millet and process them. The planting tradition in local place initiated by To Van had continued until 1940-1950, as noted by academician Shagdarsuren.O. To Van was also the initiator and organizer of the national manufacturing. First of all, he was paid attention to the rational using of natural recourses and production of food and consumer goods in local place. It was aimed first, to improve a supply of food and consumer goods to local people and fight poverty, second, to decrease slightly their economic dependence. To Van discovered the possibility of tea making and proposed to stop to exchange a tea with gold, silver and animals. He initiated the mining of salt from the lake “Sangiin dalai” and flour processing. To Van organized the making of woolen fabric, carpet and processing of gold, silver, iron and wool. In the second part of his doctrine To Van mentioned the importance of economy and saving. He taught not to be lazy and to be smart and economically. To Van criticized non-rational consuming of people such as smoking and drinking of people which caused damages for living. Natsagdorj. Sh mentioned that To Van dedicated the second part of his doctrine to the medium class. Because, first, the doctrine of To Van dedicated to both a rich and poor people, second, the medium class was the largest among the taxpayers. If I think seriously about the content of the doctrine dedicated to the richest people, it has the following economic senses:
•    A rich people has to pay taxes in time performing their citizenship duties.
•    An appropriate things for them are an evading and hiding taxes using illegal ways such as to keep away a cash from selling of animals. It causes an instability in the state finance. To Van said:”A goods and cash placed at home not increased. If one lends the money he will earn an interest. A sheep priced at 5 tsen (unit of exchange for that time) will give one or two lambs priced at 5 tsen each. Even a lamb will die, its skin will be sold for 6 tsen. As we see, either a lamb and its skin cost more than an interest, it is not allowable to loss such a big money”
I think these ideas are comparable with the latest Mercantilist theory of the West. To Van also mentioned that paying taxes fairly is useful for both- taxpayers and state, and suitable for morality. In fourth chapter of his doctrine, To Van developed the problem of fighting poverty. He wrote: “If a poor man wants to earn quickly he must be hired by others, get up early, go to bed late and work hard”. At the end chapter 3, he wrote: “The reason of poverty is an idleness, non-initiative and non-smartness. A man becomes a poor, mainly, since of his weak thinking. A clever man is hardly to become a poor.” These words are valid to present day. It is clear that an increase of economic development and social welfare depend on thorough participation and effort of a labor active people. At the beginning of the chapter 5 To Van said very vice word: “All of the living expenses could be covered if one will do hardly that job he is best in”. Here he again warns: The “enemy” of living is idleness. An increasing of living and welfare are possible only through overcoming an.  idleness. Don’t put any thing till tomorrow. It will draw to ruin your living. To Van said: “It is better to do today that is planned for tomorrow.” It is very important principle for Mongolians living in the present and future days. He taught: “Try to do some other things for one trip”. Here To Van concerned on a problem of productivity. An every progress deals with a management. He understood, not only good organization but a good approach to people and care them are a powerful lever for an economic development. To Van mentioned: “A boss should not only dictate his employee. He also should pay attention to employee’s learning. Don’t see him as a burden and help him to keep the right way. Don’t scold. Give him a living. Therefore, your business will have a success naturally.” I conclude that the doctrine of To Van is not only continuation of Chinggis Khaan’s doctrine but also is comparable to the doctrine of Dell Carnegie.     

     


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